Hearth Disease

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Overview Heart sickness describes more than a few situations that have an effect on your coronary heart. Heart sicknesses include: • Blood vessel sickness, which include coronary artery sickness • Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) • Heart defects you are born with (congenital coronary heart defects) • Heart valve sickness • Disease of the coronary heart muscle • Heart infection Many types of coronary heart sickness may be avoided or handled with healthful way of life choices. Products & Services • Mayo Clinic Healthy Living Program Symptoms Heart sickness signs and symptoms rely on what kind of coronary heart sickness you’ve got got. Symptoms of coronary heart sickness for your blood vessels A buildup of fatty plaques for your arteries, or atherosclerosis (ath-ur-o-skluh-ROE-sis) can harm your blood vessels and coronary heart. Plaque buildup reasons narrowed or blocked blood vessels which can cause a coronary heart attack, chest ache (angina) or stroke. Coronary artery sickness signs and symptoms can be exceptional for guys and women. For instance, guys are much more likely to have chest ache. Women are much more likely to produce other symptoms and symptoms and signs and symptoms along side chest discomfort, which include shortness of breath, nausea and severe fatigue. Signs and signs and symptoms can include: • Chest ache, chest tightness, chest stress and chest discomfort (angina) • Shortness of breath • Pain, numbness, weak point or coldness for your legs or fingers if the blood vessels in the ones components of your frame are narrowed • Pain withinside the neck, jaw, throat, top stomach or back You won’t be recognized with coronary artery sickness till you’ve got got a coronary heart attack, angina, stroke or coronary heart failure. It’s vital to look at for cardiovascular signs and symptoms and speak worries together along with your doctor. Cardiovascular sickness can every now and then be located early with ordinary evaluations. Heart sickness signs and symptoms resulting from atypical heartbeats (coronary heart arrhythmias) Your coronary heart can also additionally beat too quickly, too slowly or irregularly. Heart arrhythmia symptoms and symptoms and signs and symptoms can include: • Fluttering for your chest • Racing heartbeat (tachycardia) • Slow heartbeat (bradycardia) • Chest ache or discomfort • Shortness of breath • Lightheadedness • Dizziness • Fainting (syncope) or close to fainting

Heart disease symptoms caused by heart defects

Serious coronary heart defects that you are born with (congenital coronary heart defects) normally are observed quickly after birth. Heart illness symptoms and symptoms and signs in kids ought to include: • Pale grey or blue pores and skin color (cyanosis) • Swelling withinside the legs, stomach or regions across the eyes • In an infant, shortness of breath throughout feedings, main to terrible weight gain Less severe congenital coronary heart defects are frequently now no longer recognized till later in formative years or throughout adulthood. Signs and signs of congenital coronary heart defects that normally are not right away life-threatening include: • Easily getting brief of breath throughout exercising or activity • Easily tiring throughout exercising or activity • Swelling withinside the hands, ankles or feet

Heart disease symptoms caused by diseased heart muscle (cardiomyopathy)

In early levels of cardiomyopathy, you could haven’t any signs and symptoms. As the situation worsens, signs and symptoms can also additionally include: • Breathlessness with interest or at rest • Swelling of the legs, ankles and feet • Fatigue • Irregular heartbeats that sense rapid, pounding or fluttering • Dizziness, lightheadedness and fainting

Heart disease symptoms caused by heart infection

Endocarditis is an contamination that influences the internal lining of your coronary heart chambers and coronary heart valves (endocardium). Heart contamination symptoms and symptoms and signs and symptoms can include: • Fever • Shortness of breath • Weakness or fatigue • Swelling for your legs or abdomen • Changes for your coronary heart rhythm • Dry or continual cough • Skin rashes or uncommon spots

Heart disease symptoms caused by heart valve problems (valvular heart disease)

The coronary heart has 4 valves — the aortic, mitral, pulmonary and tricuspid valves — that open and near direct blood glide via your coronary heart. Many matters can harm your coronary heart valves, main to narrowing (stenosis), leaking (regurgitation or insufficiency) or fallacious closing (prolapse). Depending on which valve isn’t always running properly, valvular coronary heart disorder symptoms and symptoms and signs and symptoms usually include: • Fatigue • Shortness of breath • Irregular heartbeat • Swollen ft or ankles • Chest pain • Fainting (syncope)

When to see a doctor

Seek emergency medical care if you have these heart disease signs and symptoms:

  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fainting

Always call 911 or emergency medical help if you think you might be having a heart attack.

Heart disease is easier to treat when detected early, so talk to your doctor about your concerns regarding your heart health. If you’re concerned about developing heart disease, talk to your doctor about steps you can take to reduce your heart disease risk. This is especially important if you have a family history of heart disease.

If you think you may have heart disease, based on new signs or symptoms you’re having, make an appointment to see your doctor.

Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic

Causes

Heart disease causes depend on your specific type of heart disease. There are many different types of heart disease. To understand the causes of heart disease, it helps to understand how the heart works.

How the heart works

Chambers and valves of the heartOpen pop-up dialog box

Your coronary heart is a pump. It’s a muscular organ approximately the scale of your fist, placed barely left of middle to your chest. Your coronary heart is split into the proper and the left sides. • The proper facet of the coronary heart consists of the proper atrium and ventricle. It collects and pumps blood to the lungs thru the pulmonary arteries. • The lungs deliver the blood a brand new deliver of oxygen. The lungs additionally breathe out carbon dioxide, a waste product. • Oxygen-wealthy blood then enters the left facet of the coronary heart, together with the left atrium and ventricle. • The left facet of the coronary heart pumps blood thru the biggest artery withinside the frame (aorta) to deliver tissues all through the frame with oxygen and nutrients.

Heart valves

Four coronary heart valves maintain your blood transferring the proper manner through commencing handiest one manner and handiest once they want to. To paintings properly, the valves need to be shaped properly, need to open all of the manner and need to near tightly so there is no leakage. The 4 valves are: • Tricuspid • Mitral • Pulmonary • Aortic

Heartbeats

A beating coronary heart squeezes (contracts) and relaxes in a non-stop cycle. • During contraction (systole), your ventricles squeeze tight, forcing blood into the vessels in your lungs and body. • During relaxation (diastole), the ventricles are full of blood coming from the higher chambers (left and proper atria).

Electrical system

A beating coronary heart squeezes (contracts) and relaxes in a non-stop cycle. • During contraction (systole), your ventricles squeeze tight, forcing blood into the vessels in your lungs and body. • During relaxation (diastole), the ventricles are full of blood coming from the higher chambers (left and proper atria).

Causes of coronary artery disease

Development of atherosclerosisOpen pop-up dialog box

A beating coronary heart squeezes (contracts) and relaxes in a non-stop cycle. • During contraction (systole), your ventricles squeeze tight, forcing blood into the vessels in your lungs and body. • During relaxation (diastole), the ventricles are full of blood coming from the higher chambers (left and proper atria).

Causes of heart arrhythmia

A beating coronary heart squeezes (contracts) and relaxes in a non-stop cycle. • During contraction (systole), your ventricles squeeze tight, forcing blood into the vessels in your lungs and body. • During relaxation (diastole), the ventricles are full of blood coming from the higher chambers (left and proper atria).

Causes of congenital heart defects

A beating coronary heart squeezes (contracts) and relaxes in a non-stop cycle. • During contraction (systole), your ventricles squeeze tight, forcing blood into the vessels in your lungs and body. • During relaxation (diastole), the ventricles are full of blood coming from the higher chambers (left and proper atria).

Causes of cardiomyopathy

A beating coronary heart squeezes (contracts) and relaxes in a non-stop cycle. • During contraction (systole), your ventricles squeeze tight, forcing blood into the vessels in your lungs and body. • During relaxation (diastole), the ventricles are full of blood coming from the higher chambers (left and proper atria).

Causes of heart infection

A beating coronary heart squeezes (contracts) and relaxes in a non-stop cycle. • During contraction (systole), your ventricles squeeze tight, forcing blood into the vessels in your lungs and body. • During relaxation (diastole), the ventricles are full of blood coming from the higher chambers (left and proper atria).

Causes of valvular heart disease

A beating coronary heart squeezes (contracts) and relaxes in a non-stop cycle. • During contraction (systole), your ventricles squeeze tight, forcing blood into the vessels in your lungs and body. • During relaxation (diastole), the ventricles are full of blood coming from the higher chambers (left and proper atria).

More Information

Risk factors

Risk elements for growing coronary heart sickness include: • Age. Growing older will increase your chance of broken and narrowed arteries and a weakened or thickened coronary heart muscle. • Sex. Men are commonly at extra chance of coronary heart sickness. The chance for ladies will increase after menopause. • Family records. A own circle of relatives records of coronary heart sickness will increase your chance of coronary artery sickness, specifically if a figure advanced it at an early age (earlier than age fifty five for a male relative, which include your brother or father, and sixty five for a lady relative, which include your mom or sister). • Smoking. Nicotine tightens your blood vessels, and carbon monoxide can harm their internal lining, making them greater at risk of atherosclerosis. Heart assaults are greater not unusualplace in people who smoke than in nonsmokers. • Poor food regimen. A food regimen it truly is excessive in fat, salt, sugar and ldl cholesterol can make contributions to the improvement of coronary heart sickness. • High blood stress. Uncontrolled excessive blood stress can bring about hardening and thickening of your arteries, narrowing the vessels thru which blood flows. • High blood ldl cholesterol levels. High cholesterol levels to your blood can growth the chance of plaque formation and atherosclerosis. • Diabetes. Diabetes will increase your chance of coronary heart sickness. Both situations percentage comparable chance elements, which include weight problems and excessive blood stress. • Obesity. Excess weight usually worsens different coronary heart sickness chance elements. • Physical inactivity. Lack of exercising is also related to many sorts of coronary heart sickness and a number of its different chance elements as well. • Stress. Unrelieved pressure may also harm your arteries and get worse different chance elements for coronary heart sickness. • Poor dental health. It’s critical to sweep and floss your enamel and gums often, and feature ordinary dental checkups. If your enamel and gums are not healthy, germs can input your bloodstream and tour in your coronary heart, inflicting endocarditis.

Complications

Risk elements for growing coronary heart sickness include: • Age. Growing older will increase your chance of broken and narrowed arteries and a weakened or thickened coronary heart muscle. • Sex. Men are commonly at extra chance of coronary heart sickness. The chance for ladies will increase after menopause. • Family records. A own circle of relatives records of coronary heart sickness will increase your chance of coronary artery sickness, specifically if a figure advanced it at an early age (earlier than age fifty five for a male relative, which include your brother or father, and sixty five for a lady relative, which include your mom or sister). • Smoking. Nicotine tightens your blood vessels, and carbon monoxide can harm their internal lining, making them greater at risk of atherosclerosis. Heart assaults are greater not unusualplace in people who smoke than in nonsmokers. • Poor food regimen. A food regimen it truly is excessive in fat, salt, sugar and ldl cholesterol can make contributions to the improvement of coronary heart sickness. • High blood stress. Uncontrolled excessive blood stress can bring about hardening and thickening of your arteries, narrowing the vessels thru which blood flows. • High blood ldl cholesterol levels. High cholesterol levels to your blood can growth the chance of plaque formation and atherosclerosis. • Diabetes. Diabetes will increase your chance of coronary heart sickness. Both situations percentage comparable chance elements, which include weight problems and excessive blood stress. • Obesity. Excess weight usually worsens different coronary heart sickness chance elements. • Physical inactivity. Lack of exercising is also related to many sorts of coronary heart sickness and a number of its different chance elements as well. • Stress. Unrelieved pressure may also harm your arteries and get worse different chance elements for coronary heart sickness. • Poor dental health. It’s critical to sweep and floss your enamel and gums often, and feature ordinary dental checkups. If your enamel and gums are not healthy, germs can input your bloodstream and tour in your coronary heart, inflicting endocarditis.

 

Prevention

Risk elements for growing coronary heart sickness include: • Age. Growing older will increase your chance of broken and narrowed arteries and a weakened or thickened coronary heart muscle. • Sex. Men are commonly at extra chance of coronary heart sickness. The chance for ladies will increase after menopause. • Family records. A own circle of relatives records of coronary heart sickness will increase your chance of coronary artery sickness, specifically if a figure advanced it at an early age (earlier than age fifty five for a male relative, which include your brother or father, and sixty five for a lady relative, which include your mom or sister). • Smoking. Nicotine tightens your blood vessels, and carbon monoxide can harm their internal lining, making them greater at risk of atherosclerosis. Heart assaults are greater not unusualplace in people who smoke than in nonsmokers. • Poor food regimen. A food regimen it truly is excessive in fat, salt, sugar and ldl cholesterol can make contributions to the improvement of coronary heart sickness. • High blood stress. Uncontrolled excessive blood stress can bring about hardening and thickening of your arteries, narrowing the vessels thru which blood flows. • High blood ldl cholesterol levels. High cholesterol levels to your blood can growth the chance of plaque formation and atherosclerosis. • Diabetes. Diabetes will increase your chance of coronary heart sickness. Both situations percentage comparable chance elements, which include weight problems and excessive blood stress. • Obesity. Excess weight usually worsens different coronary heart sickness chance elements. • Physical inactivity. Lack of exercising is also related to many sorts of coronary heart sickness and a number of its different chance elements as well. • Stress. Unrelieved pressure may also harm your arteries and get worse different chance elements for coronary heart sickness. • Poor dental health. It’s critical to sweep and floss your enamel and gums often, and feature ordinary dental checkups. If your enamel and gums are not healthy, germs can input your bloodstream and tour in your coronary heart, inflicting endocarditis.

Diagnosis

Risk elements for growing coronary heart sickness include: • Age. Growing older will increase your chance of broken and narrowed arteries and a weakened or thickened coronary heart muscle. • Sex. Men are commonly at extra chance of coronary heart sickness. The chance for ladies will increase after menopause. • Family records. A own circle of relatives records of coronary heart sickness will increase your chance of coronary artery sickness, specifically if a figure advanced it at an early age (earlier than age fifty five for a male relative, which include your brother or father, and sixty five for a lady relative, which include your mom or sister). • Smoking. Nicotine tightens your blood vessels, and carbon monoxide can harm their internal lining, making them greater at risk of atherosclerosis. Heart assaults are greater not unusualplace in people who smoke than in nonsmokers. • Poor food regimen. A food regimen it truly is excessive in fat, salt, sugar and ldl cholesterol can make contributions to the improvement of coronary heart sickness. • High blood stress. Uncontrolled excessive blood stress can bring about hardening and thickening of your arteries, narrowing the vessels thru which blood flows. • High blood ldl cholesterol levels. High cholesterol levels to your blood can growth the chance of plaque formation and atherosclerosis. • Diabetes. Diabetes will increase your chance of coronary heart sickness. Both situations percentage comparable chance elements, which include weight problems and excessive blood stress. • Obesity. Excess weight usually worsens different coronary heart sickness chance elements. • Physical inactivity. Lack of exercising is also related to many sorts of coronary heart sickness and a number of its different chance elements as well. • Stress. Unrelieved pressure may also harm your arteries and get worse different chance elements for coronary heart sickness. • Poor dental health. It’s critical to sweep and floss your enamel and gums often, and feature ordinary dental checkups. If your enamel and gums are not healthy, germs can input your bloodstream and tour in your coronary heart, inflicting endocarditis.Heart disease care at Mayo Clinic

Your Mayo Clinic care team

Risk elements for growing coronary heart sickness include: • Age. Growing older will increase your chance of broken and narrowed arteries and a weakened or thickened coronary heart muscle. • Sex. Men are commonly at extra chance of coronary heart sickness. The chance for ladies will increase after menopause. • Family records. A own circle of relatives records of coronary heart sickness will increase your chance of coronary artery sickness, specifically if a figure advanced it at an early age (earlier than age fifty five for a male relative, which include your brother or father, and sixty five for a lady relative, which include your mom or sister). • Smoking. Nicotine tightens your blood vessels, and carbon monoxide can harm their internal lining, making them greater at risk of atherosclerosis. Heart assaults are greater not unusualplace in people who smoke than in nonsmokers. • Poor food regimen. A food regimen it truly is excessive in fat, salt, sugar and ldl cholesterol can make contributions to the improvement of coronary heart sickness. • High blood stress. Uncontrolled excessive blood stress can bring about hardening and thickening of your arteries, narrowing the vessels thru which blood flows. • High blood ldl cholesterol levels. High cholesterol levels to your blood can growth the chance of plaque formation and atherosclerosis. • Diabetes. Diabetes will increase your chance of coronary heart sickness. Both situations percentage comparable chance elements, which include weight problems and excessive blood stress. • Obesity. Excess weight usually worsens different coronary heart sickness chance elements. • Physical inactivity. Lack of exercising is also related to many sorts of coronary heart sickness and a number of its different chance elements as well. • Stress. Unrelieved pressure may also harm your arteries and get worse different chance elements for coronary heart sickness. • Poor dental health. It’s critical to sweep and floss your enamel and gums often, and feature ordinary dental checkups. If your enamel and gums are not healthy, germs can input your bloodstream and tour in your coronary heart, inflicting endocarditis.

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